E-Mail Edition  Volume 7   Number 3

Originally published Summer, 2010

Published by Piccadilly Books, Ltd., www.piccadillybooks.com.

Bruce Fife, N.D., Publisher, www.coconutresearchcenter.org

If you would like to

subscribe to the

Healthy Ways Newsletter

click here.




  • Study Shows Heart Disease Absent in Coconut Eating Population

  • Exercise Builds A Better Brain

  • Graviola: Natural Cancer Cure or Dangerous Toxin?




Study Shows Heart Disease Absent in Coconut Eating Population


A study published in the medical journal Tropical and Geographical Medicine found that coronary heart disease, the world's number one cause of death, is virtually unknown in a coconut eating population of Sri Lanka.

The Veddas or "Forest People" are the indigenous people of Sri Lanka. The Sinhalase race, which makes up the majority of the Sri Lanka population, migrated from India some two thousand years ago. The lifestyle, social characteristics, language, and religious beliefs of the Veddas are quite different from those of the Sinhalese.


Sri Lanka is just off of the Eastern tip of India.



At the beginning of the 20th century there were still many Vedda communities in the South Eastern jungles of Sri Lanka, existing as they have for thousands of years, living in huts constructed of mud bricks and eating wild fruit, yams, and coconut, and hunting for game using bows and arrows. Over time, the Vedda communities gradually adapted the modern culture of the expanding Sinhalese population. By the 1980s there were only two traditional Vedda communities remaining, isolated from the general population deep in the jungle.

As part of a massive development project, the jungle homeland of the Veddas was declared a Natural Reserve and the Veddas were forced to resettle to other areas. Unable to hunt or gather foods as they had in their jungle home, they adapted an agrarian lifestyle. This study was carried out in the mid 1980s, before the resettlement scheme commenced.

The coconut palm is very important to the Veddas. It provides them with materials for making tools, eating utensils, and rope, to build fires, and most importantly provides a steady source of food. Veddas live off the land and eat whatever they can gather and kill. Most fruit bearing plants produce seasonally. The coconut palm, however, produces coconuts year round, providing them with an unending supply of food. The majority of dietary fat in the traditional Vedda population comes from coconut and wild game, both high in saturated fat. Researchers at the University of Sri Lanka department of medicine were interested in how their high-fat diet affected their health, particularly their cardiovascular health. Before the Veddas were integrated into Sinhalese culture and adopted to agriculture and modern foods, the researchers wanted to study their health. What effect did their traditional high-saturated fat diet have on their health? That was the question they wanted to answer.

The study examined 207 adults 20-83 years of age. A detailed medical history was taken of each subject, which included level of daily physical activity, dietary and smoking habits, and any adverse symptoms, with special emphasis on the presence of cardiac chest pain. A complete physical examination and blood analysis was performed with special attention to the cardiovascular system. 

None of the subjects reported any heart related symptoms such as angina (chest pain) or myocardial infarction (heart attack). Using an electrocardiogram, there were no features of heart disease found in the any of the subjects. Despite the fact that 39 percent of the men smoked, only 3.8 percent demonstrated elevated blood pressure, which is much lower than in the Sinhalese population. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels were average and comparable to those of the Sinhalese, although the Veddas' HDL cholesterol (the good cholesterol which protects against heart disease) was higher. Coconut consumption is known to raise HDL cholesterol, so this may have been the reason for the superior HDL levels. In summary, there was absolutely no evidence of heart disease among this population.1 This is not surprising, similar studies of coconut eating populations in other parts of the world have produced the same results.2-3

Coconut is not only important for the Veddas, but for all Sri Lankans. The Sinhalese also enjoy coconut, which is used in many of their traditional dishes. In fact, coconut oil provides the primary source of oil in their diet, or so it did until recent years.

In 1978 each man, woman, and child in Sri Lanka consumed the equivalent of 120 coconuts a year. That is a lot of coconut and a lot of coconut oil. That would equate to drinking nearly 30 quarts of coconut oil per year. If coconut oil caused heart disease or even just encouraged it, heart disease would be clearly evident in this population. Keep in mind that this was an average rate of consumption for all people, even babies and young children who ate very little oil or none at all. Which means that the adult population was consuming far more than 30 quarts of coconut oil annually, 40 quarts is more like it. However, during that year Sri Lanka had one of the lowest rates of heart disease in the world. Only one death out of every 100,000 was cause by coronary heart disease. In the United States coconut oil constituted less than 1 percent of the fat consumed and people were increasingly turning to polyunsaturated soybean oil and margarine as their preferred choices of fat, the heat attack death rate was 280 times higher! Despite the fact that Sri Lankans were consuming about 40 quarts of coconut oil each year, heart disease was rare.

Over the past several decades coconut and coconut oil consumption in Sri Lanka has drastically declined. In 1953 average consumption was 136 coconuts a year. In 1978 it dropped to 120. By 1991 it was down to 90 and has continued to fall. The theory that saturated fat promoted heart disease was introduced in the late 1950s and gradually gained acceptance. People became fearful of coconut oil and other saturated fats and began to replace it with polyunsaturated oils. Even in coconut growing areas of the world, like Sri Lanka, people began eating soybean oil and margarine in place of coconut oil.

During this time, an interesting thing happened. As coconut oil consumption declined, the incidence of heart disease increased! As people began to eat less coconut oil and eat more soybean oil, the heart attack death rate climbed. Yet, among those populations within the country where coconut oil was still the primary source of fat in the diet, heart disease remained a rarity.

Today Sri Lanka no longer has the lowest heart disease death rate. While certain groups of people in the country who use coconut oil liberally are not as affected, the general population has experienced an epidemic of heart problems thanks to the introduction of imported polyunsaturated vegetable oils. Heart attack is now, like in most other countries, the number one cause of death, accounting for 11 percent of all deaths in the country. This is still lower than in the US and most other western countries, but far higher than it was just a few decades ago when coconut oil was a mainstay in the diet.




1. Mendis, S. Coronary heart disease and coronary risk profile in a primitive population. Trop Geogr Med 1991;43:199-202.

2. Hunter, J.D. Diet, body build, blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels in coconut eating Polynesians. Fed Proc 1962;21:36-43.

3.Maddocks, I. Possible absence of essential hypertension in two complete Pacific Island populations. Lancet 1961;1:396-399.





Exercise Builds A Better Brain


"If exercise could be packaged in pill form, it would immediately become the number one anti-aging medicine, as well as the world's most prescribed pill. —Dr. Robert Butler, International Longevity Center at Manhattan's Mt. Sinai Hospital.


Have you ever misplaced important items such as your keys, glasses, or wallet and couldn't remember where you put them? Have you walked into a room and when you got there forgot why you entered? Have you ever been introduced to someone and within minutes were unable to recall the name? As we grow older, these senior moments become more common. The rate at which we lose memory and cognitive skills varies from individual to individual. In some people the decline in mental function is quick, leading to Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative conditions. And in others the rate of decline is more gradual.

Brain health isn't something only seniors need to be concerned about, the health of your brain when you reach 60 or 70 is in large part determined by factors throughout your life. As brain cells or neurons age and die the brain shrinks and cognitive ability declines. Shrinkage begins as early as your 30s. The brain shrinks at a rate of about 0.5 to 1 percent a year.

There are many factors that influence the rate at which the brain shrinks. One of these is exercise. We all know that exercise strengthens the muscles, but research shows it also strengthens the brain. Although the brain is not a muscle, when we exercise, the brain gets a vigorous workout. Exercise, whether it is lifting weights or running on a treadmill, tones the brain, slowing down the aging process.

According to Dr. Arthur Kramer and colleagues at the University of Illinois-Urbana, we can dramatically slow down the rate at which the brain ages with just three hours of aerobic exercise a week. Kramer divided up a group of 59 adults, aged 60-79, into two groups and followed them for six months. One group participated in 1 hour of aerobics three times a week at a level of 60-70 percent of their maximum heart rate, which is pretty moderate. The other group spent 1 hour three times a week doing stretching and toning exercises. Kramer found that after only six months, the percipients who exercised aerobically had the brain volumes of people three years younger. Exercise not only prevented brain shrinkage, but stimulated neuron growth. There was no improvement in the brains of those who did only the stretching.1


Three-dimensional MRI scans of the participants' brains were taken at the beginning and at the end of the study period. These images visually demonstrated neuron growth in the aerobic exercisers. Most of the growth occurred in the frontal lobe of the brain, which is involved in memory and reasoning.

According to Dr. Kramer, the reason exercise improves brain health is due in part by the improved circulation. More blood, carrying oxygen and nutrients, is carried into the brain. In addition, exercise stimulates the activation of special neuroprotective proteins such as brain derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), both of which defend the brain against oxidative stress and promote neuronal growth and repair.2

MRI brain scan.


Exercise not only slows down the normal aging process but protects against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Dr. E.B. Larson and colleagues at the Center for Health Studies in Seattle, Washington, found that persons 65 years of age or older who exercised three or more times a week experienced a much lower rate of Alzheimer's disease than those who exercised less or not at all.3

Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh demonstrated that exercise increases the brain's capacity for self-repair. When Parkinson's disease is chemically induced in lab animals, exercise protects the animal's brains from the damaging effects of the neurotoxin.4 The researchers suggest that exercise can not only protect against parkinsonism but potentially can provide protection against a variety of neurodegenerative conditions. In essence, exercise acts as an antidote against neurodegeneration.


Wikimedia Commons


A number of studies have shown a clear benefit with aerobic exercise—exercise that involves continuous vigorous movement such as jogging, swimming laps, or hiking. But weight lifting—a nonaerobic exercise—can also be beneficial.

Researchers at the University of British Columbia, Canada found that older women who did 1-2 hours of strength training exercises each week had improved cognitive function a year later.5

The researchers randomly assigned 155 women ages 65 to 75 either to strength training with dumbbells and weight machines once or twice a week, or to a comparison group doing balance and toning. The strength training classes were fairly intense. All major muscles from the shoulders and arms to the lower legs and feet were covered, so the participants received a hearty workout. The balance and toning classes consisted of a more leisurely regimen of stretching, range of motion exercises, exercises to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles, balance exercises, and relaxation techniques.

A year later, the women who did strength training improved their performance on tests of so-called executive function by 10.9 percent to 12.6 percent, while those assigned to balance and toning exercises experienced a slight deterioration of 0.5 percent. The improvements in the strength training group included an enhanced ability to make decisions, resolve conflicts, and focus on subjects without being distracted by competing stimuli.

How strength training compares with aerobic exercise has yet to be determined, but it appears that an exercise program that combines aerobic exercise with some strength training may give the greatest brain boost.

How much exercise is needed to achieve adequate protection for the brain? Fortunately, you don't need to run a marathon every day to benefit. Moderate exercise is adequate. The above studies show significant improvement with just 1-3 hours per week.

A recent study out of Germany confirms this. The study included 3,903 people over the age of 55. All of the participants completed a cognitive impairment test and a questionnaire that divided them into one of three levels of activity: none, moderate, or high. Moderate activity was defined as exercising fewer than three times a week. High activity was defined as three or more times a week. The type of exercise included walking, hiking, biking, swimming, and similar activities.

At the end of 2 years, the researchers found that 13.9 percent of the non-exercisers had developed cognitive impairment. However, in the moderate and high activity groups only 6.7 and 5.1 percent respectively developed cognitive impairment.6

The researchers were amazed by the magnitude of the findings. "Physical activity cut in half the odds of developing incident cognitive impairment. We were also surprised that moderate physical activity had nearly the same effect as high physical activity," says Thorleif Etgen, MD, the lead author of the study. "The take-home message is: keep on moving," said Etgen.

It appears that if you want to protect your brain from premature aging and neurodegenerative disease, you should be exercising regularly.



  1. Colcombe, S.J., et al. Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2006;61:1166-1170.

  2. Kramer, A.F., et al. Exercise, cognition, and the aging brain. J Appl Physiol 2006;101:1237-1242.

  3. Larson, E.B., et al. Exercise is associated with reduced risk for incident dementia among persons 65 years of age or older. Ann Intern Med 2006;144:73-81.

  4. Smith, A.S. and Zigmond, M.J. Can the brain be protected through exercise? Lessons from an animal model of parkinsonism. Exp Neurol 2003;184:274-284.

  5. Liu-Ambrose, T., et al. Resistance training and executive functions: a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2010;170:170-178.

  6. Etgen, T., et al. Physical activity and incident cognitive impairment in elderly persons: the INVADE study. Arch Intern Med 2010;170:186-193.





Herbal Supplements


Graviola: Natural Cancer Cure or Dangerous Neurotoxin?

If you haven't heard of Graviola by now, you probably will sooner or later. Graviola, is the Portuguese name for a South American fruit-bearing plant called pawpaw or soursop. In Spanish-speaking countries it is known as guanabana. You may hear of this herb under any of these names. The plant has been highly praised as a natural cure for cancer. Numerous websites actively promote this obscure herb as a miracle treatment for cancer. Dietary



Graviola, also known as pawpaw or soursop.


supplements are peddled on the Internet and in health food stores. However, what does the science say? Is it really a miracle cancer cure or a lot of hype? And how safe is it? Just because it comes from a "natural source" does not mean it is automatically free from risk. Science writer Ralph Moss, Ph.D., sums up his experience researching the herb. His article is reprinted below.


Ralph Moss, Ph.D.

Hardly a day goes by that I am not asked for my opinion of some new cancer treatment. When it comes to evaluating the merits of any treatment, conventional or unconventional, I try to maintain a mindset of "friendly skepticism." On the one hand, I remain receptive to all promising new approaches. Lord knows, conventional oncology leaves much to be desired and society desperately needs new ideas. On the other hand, we live in a world filled with hustlers and opportunists, and we have to be constantly on our guard against expensive and dangerous rip-offs. We want to protect patients while at the same time not discouraging innovative researchers.

A reader once called me a "soft-core quackbuster". Although he later retracted the charge, I have to confess that I wasn't terribly upset at the label. As I see it, quackery exists on both sides of the medical divide: neither conventional medicine nor alternative medicine is immune from this scourge or has a monopoly on probity. A major problem with the self-proclaimed "quackbusters" is that their one-sided and tendentious attacks on alternative medicine leave the impression that conventional medicine is the only valid way of treating most forms of cancer. They come across as knee-jerk defenders of a status quo that genuinely needs to be reformed, not supported unquestioningly. On the other hand, I am wary of exaggerated claims made for any cancer treatments, whether those treatments originate in orthodox or alternative medicine, because such overblown claims are often based on (let us be generous) commercial considerations rather than solid science.

A case in point is an herbal treatment called Graviola. This burst onto the Internet in early 1999 and is now incorporated into many patients' regimens. An increasing number of alternative practitioners are recommending it to their patients.

What exactly is Graviola? It is a common name for Annona muricata, also known as soursop or Brazilian paw-paw. This is a small, upright evergreen tree growing 15 to 18 feet in height with large, glossy dark green leaves.

Graviola is indigenous to warm tropical areas in the Americas, including the Amazon. It produces a 6-to-9 inch, heart-shaped edible fruit, yellow-green in color, with white flesh. This is sold in tropical markets under the name guanabana or Brazilian cherimoya. It is said to be excellent for making drinks and sherbets and, though slightly sour-acid, can be eaten out-of-hand.

If you enter the term "Graviola" into Google you come up with an amazing 12,300 citations, over 2,000 of which relate to cancer. You also get a rash of sidebar advertisements such as "A great product to fight cancer," "Graviola helps to fight cancer," and "How Millions Beat Cancer," presumably with the help of this herb. The plant is also the subject of several dedicated websites. According to
www.graviola.org , the plant is "an astounding cancer-fighting tree from the Amazon!" It is reputedly "10,000 times stronger in killing colon cancer than Adriamycin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug" and has the ability to "hunt down and destroy prostate, lung, breast, colon, and pancreatic cancers... leaving healthy cells alone!"

These are formidable claims. Adriamycin (doxorubicin) is one of the most powerful (and toxic) drugs in chemotherapy. Adriamycin was discovered in Italy in the 1970s, hence the "Adria-tic" name. I well remember its introduction into oncology and how it revolutionized the treatment of several forms of cancer. But now, we are told, an herb has come to light that is not only as powerful as Adriamycin, but 10,000 times more powerful, and non-toxic to boot. The mind reels. Reading this statement, one cannot wait to find out more about this herbal product and how it could be used to help cancer patients. One pictures the evil demon Cancer, beaten and cringing in its corner, knowing that its days on earth are numbered.

I don't know who first penned these effusive statements about Graviola but the claims have taken on a life of their own. I found two dozen other websites that contained the exact phrasing about Graviola being "10,000 times stronger than Adriamycin," all equally unsupported by scientific references. It seems that astounding claims concerning cancer cures spread like a virus from Website to Website.

Since there are now hundreds of sites featuring and selling Graviola, I figured that this herb would also be well represented in PubMed, the National Library of Medicine's database of peer-reviewed articles. PubMed contains 12 million citations to nearly all medical journal articles published since the mid-1960s. But when I entered the term "Graviola" into this comprehensive search engine all I came up with was a single item. And this was not a clinical report at all but chemical arcana about screening Brazilian fruits for their aromas.

There had to be something wrong. I went back to the
www.graviola.org website (although exactly whose organization the '.org' refers to is not apparent) and I clicked on the "clinical references" link at the bottom of the page. All I got was a blank screen. The same thing with "data base entries" and "Graviola products." It looked as if someone had hastily removed some documentary material, but had then forgotten to remove the links.

I then found a more productive tack. I read that the "active ingredients" in Graviola are a group of "annonaceous acetogenins" that are only found in the Annonaceae family, to which Graviola belongs. "These phytochemicals are being researched around the world for their active biological properties and potential uses," one website proclaimed.

The phrase "annonaceous acetogenins" gave a new and promising starting point. Indeed, this term yielded 121 citations in PubMed. A lot of these were about the chemical constituents of the fruit. But taken cumulatively, one gathers that there is indeed a class of very interesting and potentially useful compounds in various branches of the Annona family. To quote scientists at Purdue University's highly regarded School of Pharmacy, "Annonaceous acetogenins are an extremely potent class of compounds, and their inhibition of cell growth can be selective for cancerous cells and also effective for drug resistant cancer cells, while exhibiting only minimal toxicity to 'normal' non-cancerous cells" (Oberlies 1995). Graviola thus joins the list of hundreds of other biologically active plants that are of potential importance to the future of medicine.

Further searching in PubMed revealed that it was in fact scientists at Purdue who had first come up with the widely-circulated "more powerful than Adriamycin" claim. Here is what Dr. X.X. Liu and colleagues stated in 1999: "Annoglacins A and B were selectively 1000 and 10,000 times, respectively, more potent than Adriamycin against the human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and pancreatic carcinoma (PACA-2) cell lines in our panel of six human solid tumor cell lines."

This is very exciting in principle. However, to an inquiring, healthily skeptical mind, several questions immediately suggest themselves. One is, how much "annoglacin B" is found in a typical Graviola capsule purchased over the Internet? Quite probably it is infinitessimally small. Also lost in the promotional hoo-hah is the fact that the particular annoglacins investigated by Dr Liu and colleagues were derived not from Graviola at all but from a related, but entirely different, species, Annona glabra. This is a Polynesian tree called the pond or alligator apple.

 Additionally and most importantly, what do actual clinical studies show about the effectiveness of this agent against cancer? Back at the
www.graviola.org website we read that "three separate research groups have isolated novel compounds in the seeds and leaves of Graviola which have demonstrated significant anti-tumorous, anti-cancerous and selective toxicity against various types of cancer cells, publishing eight clinical studies on their findings."

Really? If we enter the search term Annona into PubMed, but limit our search with the modifier "clinical trials" (which includes any and all phases of clinical work), we come up with exactly...zero!

My understanding of the term "clinical studies" is that they necessarily involve the treatment of human beings (or, more inclusively, pet and farm animals). Webster says that the term 'clinical' is an observation that "involves or is based on direct observation of the patient." The Cancerweb dictionary states that the word 'clinical' pertains to or is founded on "actual observation and treatment of patients, as distinguished from theoretical or basic sciences."

But where are these "clinical studies" of Annona derivatives, if they are not to be found among the 12 million peer-reviewed journal articles of PubMed?

The anonymous authors of the
www.graviola.org website seem to have misspoken. They can't really mean clinical studies. They mean laboratory experiments that take place in test tubes with cell lines, which many knowledgeable researchers view as not directly equivalent to human cancer tissue. (See Gerald B. Dermer's book "The Immortal Cell" for corroboration of this point of view.) With this self-serving "slip of the tongue" the anonymous promoters of Graviola have undoubtedly convinced many cancer patients to buy their product.

Have any of these patients been helped? Or have they been harmed by unknown or unmentioned side effects? Have they been deprived of precious time and thereby the opportunity to undergo other, more effective, treatments? Or have they simply been relieved of unspecified sums of money? In the vast majority of cases, we'll never know.

Sadly, Graviola has now entered the netherworld of alternative cancer treatments. It promises much based on real, but very preliminary, scientific facts. Now its reputation has been tarnished by misstatements and over-promotion. Is there any way for a promising treatment to find its way back from the Purgatory of Cancer Cure-Alls? Or shall we remain forever in the dark about the merits of such treatments? Thousands of cancer patients are waiting for an answer to that riddle.

At this point, the cancer-fighting effects of Graviola outside the test tube are unknown. Is it worth a try? Many of the websites marketing the product promote it as not only as an effective treatment for cancer but as a "harmless" herbal preventative as well. The impression one gets is that we should all be using it daily to prevent cancer. Such action however, could be disastrous.

Pawpaw fruit is often sold in markets throughout the Caribbean, Central and South America, and some islands of the Pacific. It has a sour-sweet fruity taste and a banana-like texture. The soft pulp of the pawpaw is often mixed with the juice of other fruits. Some of these are packaged and sold commercially.

Historically, the native people used all parts of the tree in herbal medicines for a variety of uses. The fruit was used to expel intestinal worms. The bark, leaves, and roots were made into tea and used as a sedative and applied to the scalp to kill lice. It was also known as an effective aborticide, used to end pregnancies. Annonacin, the primary active ingredient in pawpaw, is the same compound that is hailed as a potent cancer fighter. It is most concentrated in the leaves, but is also found in the fruit. While preliminary research has shown that annonacin can kill cancer cells, unfortunately, it also kills brain cells.  It is particularly toxic to dopamine producing neurons in the area of the brain that controls physical movement. Annonacin is 1000 times more toxic than MPP+, a chemical that is used to induce Parkinson's disease in laboratory animals. Indeed, studies show that the daily consumption of annonacin produces brain lesions in animals similar to those found in Parkinson's disease patients.1-2

Can the amount of annonacin in the fruit cause harm? For many years doctors were perplexed by an epidemic of Parkinson's disease on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe. Investigators eventually discovered that the culprit was the pawpaw. Eating the fruit and beverages made from the pulp was destroying the people's brains. A similar epidemic on the island of New Caledonia in the South Pacific was attributed to the same fruit.

The leaves and bark are made into products marketed and sold as natural insecticides and animal repellents. Bugs won't touch the fruit or the tree, those that take a nibble, don't live long enough for a second helping. Jerry McLaughlin, Ph.D., who has published studies using pawpaw extracts, describes it as "very good against cancer, and also terrific at killing insects." Small animals are just as vulnerable. A crude extract of pawpaw twigs killed brine shrimp at a concentration of just 0.04 parts per million (ppm)—well below the 70 ppm concentration of strychnine needed to elicit the same effect.

Are dietary supplements that are made from the leaves, which have a higher concentration of annonacin than the fruit, safe to eat? Since there have been no clinical trials evaluating either the effectiveness or the safety of the supplement, it is probably prudent not to act as a human guinea pig.

While most herbal remedies are harmless. Not all "natural" remedies are harmless or effective. Before taking the next new wonder herb you should do your homework.


  1. Lannuzel, A., et al. The mitochondrial complex I inhibitor annonacin is toxic to mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by impairment of energy metabolism. Neuroscience 2003;121 (2): 287—296.

  2. Champy, P., et al. Annonacin, a lipophilic inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, induces nigral and striatal neurodegeneration in rats: Possible relevance for atypical parkinsonism in Guadeloupe. Journal of Neurochemistry 2004;88 (1): 63—69.




Do you have friends who would like this newsletter? If so, please feel free to share this newsletter with them.


If this newsletter was forwarded to you by a friend and you would like to subscribe, click here.


Copyright © 2010,  Bruce Fife. All rights reserved.